In 618 AD, when Li Yuan seized the power of his younger brother Yang Guang, he could not have imagined that he would be the great ancestor who started a great dynasty.
The greatness of the Tang Dynasty lies in its openness, tolerance and self-confidence. But if there is no poetry, such greatness, at least a 50% discount.
Remember, more than 2,000 poets who have survived to this day hold up this dynasty worthy of worship.
No dynasty, like the Tang dynasty, has left so many well-known poems. Any classical artistic conception, traditional things, and all human emotions you can think of have been completely written by the people of the Tang Dynasty.
The Moon, the protagonist of the Mid-Autumn Festival, has been written more than 5,000 times by people in the Tang Dynasty.
Among the popular "Three Hundred Tang Poems", there are 81 poems involving the moon, accounting for 27%.
A popular poet, without a poem about writing the month, is like a star at the moment, not a popular variety show, not a real traffic star.
In the winter of that year, the cultural people in Chang'an were all praising an article. Tang Gaozong ordered someone to take a look and read
The more he read, the more he became addicted, Tang Gaozong then asked: "Now, where is Wang Bo? I want to call him into the court!"
The people underneath hesitated: "Wang Bo, has fallen into the water and died."
This article that made the emperor obsessed with the emperor was called "The Preface to the Pavilion of King Teng". It was a "propositional composition" written by Wang Bo when he went to Jiaozhi to visit his father and passed by Nanchang.
People seem to forget that he is not only first-rate in writing, but also in writing poems, ranking first among the "four masters of the early Tang Dynasty".
He has written about the moon, and there are several. The most flavorful is "Shan Fei Night Sitting".
Under the bright moon, there are flowers, trees, pianos, wine, and lovers. Such a spring night is not only a portrayal of Wang Bo's personal youth, but also a symbol of the youthful flight of Tang poetry.
But in the summer of the following year when he wrote "The Preface to the Pavilion of the King of Teng", after visiting his father, on the way back across the sea, he encountered strong winds, drowned and died of horror.
He was only 27 years old.
The youth of Tang poetry is gradually blooming. Compared with Wang Bo, who died young, our memory of another poet is shorter and more brilliant.
This poet named Zhang Ruoxu, his life is even worse than his name. He was like a firework show in the poetry of the Tang Dynasty. It was so beautiful. After that, no redundant information was left, except for his two poems.
We only know that he was probably active from the mid-seventh century to the early eighth century. He may be from Yangzhou and once held a relatively humble military position.
Wen Yiduo said that "moonlit night on the Spring River" is
The starting point for writing the moon in Tang poetry was pulled too high and too high by Zhang Ruoxu, which can be called
Many poets want to get rid of Zhang Ruoxu's influence throughout their lives, and as a result become his imitators unconsciously.
Successfully refused to imitate and did not take the usual path, another great poet must have been born.
Around 682 AD, a personal "concert" was held in Chang'an City. The performer was a rich second generation from Sichuan.
Chen Ziang wrote poems silently in Chang'an at first, but he did not pay attention to him.
I don’t know what’s going on. One day, I suddenly got my heart out and bought a Huqin at a sky-high price. Just like a rich man took a picture of a chicken bowl a few years ago, it made headlines.
He strikes while the iron is hot and sends out invitations, stating that there will be a concert. After "cheating" the celebrities, he performed art on the spot and threw the high-priced piano, and came to a freestyle: There are a lot of people here today, I don't play the piano and write Lisao, my poem is inexplicably good, just Let me tell you, it’s not that I am arrogant, Chen Ziang will definitely explode!
So, distribute materials on the spot to promote their poems.
After this performance, Chen Ziang
When all the poets explained that Yue had witnessed the reunion, Chen Ziang said that Ming Yue had witnessed the separation between friends. Whether he is a man or writes poetry, he is always so maverick and out of fashion.
Only those who do not play cards according to the rules will appreciate each other. During Wu Zetian's reign, he admired Chen Ziang's talent very much, and granted the official post of the Right Collector.
However, Chen Ziang, who was outspoken and daring to admonish, was always squeezed out and beaten. He resigned and returned home at the age of 38.
Three years later, he was murdered by a traitor and died unjustly in prison. Later generations call him
18 years after Chen Ziang's death, in 718 AD, 40-year-old Zhang Jiuling should have entered Beijing. This year, the sixth year of Kaiyuan, the atmosphere of the prosperous Tang Dynasty gradually improved.
In the poetry circle of the Tang Dynasty, Zhang Jiuling was an important person who followed Chen Ziang's ranks, traced the strength of Han and Wei, and opened up the prosperous Tang.
Zhang Jiuling later became the last name of the Kaiyuan Prosperous Age. After he was squeezed out by Li Linfu, the political affairs of Datang began to deteriorate.
It is said that Zhang Jiuling's demeanor is unsurpassed, which makes Tang Xuanzong's mind. After his death, whenever someone recommended talents, Tang Xuanzong always asked:
When Zhang Jiuling was demoted to Jingzhou, he recruited nearly half a hundred locals as staff. This person was already very famous at the time, and even Li Bai worshipped him, saying
Meng Haoran has been with the landscape and countryside all his life, but it is not without the heart of the world. He went to Chang'an twice to seek fame and fame, but his official career was difficult.
In the mansion of Prime Minister Zhang Shuo, he ran into Tang Xuanzong, recite his poems on the spot, and read
This was a huge blow to Meng Haoran, after which his fame and fame gradually faded.
Meng Haoran's skill in writing poems that are almost straight-lined.
Wen Yiduo commented that:
In 741 AD, when Wang Wei passed through Xiangyang and found that Meng Haoran had passed away, he was heartbroken and wrote
There are so many things in the world that are beyond the control of good will.
Wang Wei's father died young and his eldest son took over. He took the burden of the family early. This forced him to hide his pastoral dreams cautiously and be a small official in the empire to support his family.
Of all the poems written by people in the Tang Dynasty, it can be said that the moon written by Wang Wei is the most seductive.
In addition to "the moon rises to startle the mountain bird, the hour is mingled in the spring stream", he also wrote
He wants to escape from the boring official life, he has this kind of psychological need, so he can always hit people's hearts and resonate.
have to say,
What's interesting is that this pair of people of the same age were all big names in poetry at the time. They had mutual friends such as Meng Haoran and Wang Changling, but they didn't know each other. It is very doubtful whether there is any festival between them.
If nothing else, the difference in personality is very obvious.
Wang Wei has been in self-doubt all his life, while Li Bai has always felt great about himself.
It is said that once Li Bai entered the palace and asked Gao Lishi to help him take off his boots in front of Tang Xuanzong, thus offending Gao Lishi.
But Li Bai didn't care about these at all.
The bright moon described by Li Bai is definitely the most widely known bright moon in Chinese history. From eighty old women to three-year-old children, almost everyone can carry it.
His relationship with Mingyue is so deep that people would rather believe that he caught the moon after drinking and died by drowning.
The modern poet Yu Guangzhong said of Li Bai:
Some people may ask, what about the other half of the Tang Dynasty? The answer lies with Du Fu.
Like the two sides of a coin, the prosperous Tang Dynasty had Li Bai, an outstanding representative of romantic poets, and Du Fu, the best model of realistic poets.
Suffering leads to poets. Du Fu's life was really hard. His memory of hunger makes people cry.
In the year that the Anshi Rebellion broke out, he was about to be displaced. He passed by his hometown and went home to have a look. He heard crying before entering the house. It turned out that his youngest son starved to death.
Years later, when he was hungry, facing the liquor and beef delivered by the local officials, "just drank too much and died overnight" and died.
The Tang Dynasty went from prosperity to decline. As a witness, Du Fu used poetry to replace history and recorded it truthfully. Later generations called his poems "Poetry History".
This is Du Fu's tender and delicate work. He obviously missed his wife and children, but said his wife missed himself.
There is a saying:
Du Fu is such a hero.
Wang Changling, who was a decade older than Du Fu, praised another kind of heroism.
As far as literati are concerned, the Tang Dynasty was a dynasty with a very mobile population. Because of the vast territory, they can actively or passively travel and migrate.
Frontier fortress poetry is the product of such a specific era.
Of course, the imperial court hoped that poets would reflect through frontier poems
This poem is praised as
The cessation of the frontier wars requires the imperial court to appoint real heroes. Does the implication mean that the current generals are all bears?
Using the past to satirize the present, Wang Changling is absolutely perfect.
Gao Shi and Wang Changling, cen Shen and Wang Zhihuan are collectively called
As a result, Gao Shi didn't accomplish anything important, instead he wrote a lot of frontier poems. Fame is getting better and better.
Some comments said,
You know, Gao Shi is a domineering person who can write farewell poems——
Although he didn't officially enter the official career until the age of 46, but after that, his life was just like being on the hook. No one can beat him. Zeng put down the rebellion of Yongwang Li Lin.
After his death at the age of 62, he was also given the title of the Ministry of Gifts.
In all the cases of Tang Dynasty's counterattack, it should be said that there is no more successful than Gao Shi.
The figure of Zhang Ji of the Tang Dynasty left to history is quite vague, so vague that there is almost only one night's memory left.
And Zhang Ji, accompanied us for insomnia all night, and then disappeared.
If there is no "Maple Bridge Night Moor" to stay, Zhang Ji is no different from any passerby in history. Maybe he has lived in the world, but no one cares.
But now is different. For more than a thousand years, people in the entire Chinese cultural circle have been talking about the insomnia night he experienced.
There is no missing sleeper at any time.
As a "post-war baby" born after the Anshi Rebellion, Wang Jian has felt the sad reminder of the era sinking into individuals since he was a child.
Poverty is born so much that he
This also makes Wang Jian's poems "close to the people".
The moon on the Mid-Autumn Festival is not difficult to write, but the difficult thing is to write empathy and empathy. "Tang Talent Biography" says that Wang Jian’s strength lies in being able to
Poets in the Mid-Tang Dynasty have many good poems, but the poets themselves do not have a strong sense of existence. Occasionally there are names flying all over the sky, and it is probably a big scandal.
When the Tang Dynasty legend "Huo Xiaoyu's Biography" was published, Li Yi was still alive. This famous Tang legend is written about Li Yi's gossip, saying that he was fortunate enough to abandon the prostitute Huo Xiaoyu.
Within the time limit they agreed to love each other, Li Yi climbed into a noble family relationship, and avoided Huo Xiaoyu and refused to meet. Huo Xiaoyu Xiangsi died of illness.
After the incident was exposed, Li Yi was under tremendous pressure from public opinion.
This poem is one of Li Yi's representative works. After it was written, it was widely read. "The Chronicle of Tang Poetry" says that this poem was put into paintings at that time and was sung throughout the world.
It seems that
As the greatest poet in the Mid-Tang Dynasty, Bai Juyi could not escape the gossip.
According to incomplete statistics, he had more than 30 domestic prostitutes throughout his life, and he also wrote a poem about the famous prostitute Guan Panpan. That is called a murder invisible.
But in fact, among the top three poets in the Tang Dynasty, Bai Juyi is the one with the most political conditions and ability. He should not just belong to the entertainment gossip weekly.
As many scholars have argued, Li Bai has great political ambitions and literary talents, but he does not understand the rules of the feudal system, and he is extremely arrogant, unable to adapt to the operating rules of the ruling group; Du Fu also has the ability to "to the king, Yao and Shun, and then to make customs The ideal of "Chun", and has a family background of Confucianism and guarding officials, but has a solid temperament, "good at talking about the world's major events, high but not cutting."
Bai Juyi's political ideals and knowledge tools are very close to Li Du, and his political ability is much higher than Li Du.
According to the normal path design, Bai Juyi should belong to politics, belong to the court, and it is completely conditional to take the time to save the world as his tenure.
However, after being demoted to Sima in Jiangzhou for bluntly admonition,
Bai Juyi's failure and degeneration should not be regarded as his mistakes, but the mistakes of the times.
He indulges in sensuality and misses his friends, and he is deeply helpless.
Among the four friends he missed in the poem is Yuan Zhen.
Yuan Zhen is very clever and witty, and she has a good name when she was young. He and Bai Juyi are in the same class and level, and become a lifelong poetry friend. The two jointly advocated the New Yuefu Movement, known as the world
Like Bai Juyi, Yuan Zhen was not politically disappointed. Although he was once an official to the prime minister, he was demoted to a foreign country under the planning of the coveted Li Fengji.
People in Tang Dynasty have the habit of writing poems on the walls. Bai Juyi had searched for Yuan Zhen's poem all the way in various post houses, and happily joined the previous one when he found it.
Bai Juyi also made peace with this poem.
It is no exaggeration to say that they are the most famous CPs in the Tang Dynasty poetry world.
Yuan Zhen has a rich love history throughout his life, and Xue Tao is his rumored girlfriend.
Xue Tao, who was both talented and beautiful, was later named one of the four great female poets of the Tang Dynasty.
Xue Tao is 11 years older than Yuan Zhen. They met for the first time, Xue Tao was 42 years old and Yuan Zhen was 31 years old.
This crazy sibling relationship lasted only about 3 months.
Yuan Zhen never returned after saying goodbye. Xue Tao took off his red skirt and put on a robe.
The delicacy of the female poet adds a touch of warmth to the male poetry world. Then, she swallowed alone in pain.
When Xue Tao was already frustrated with feelings, in Chang'an, her peer Han Yu also felt frustrated with politics.
In 819 AD, led by Tang Xianzong, Chang'an set off a frenzy of belief in Buddhism.
Han Yu did not cater to the emperor's beliefs, but instead admonished the Buddha's bones regardless of personal safety. Tang Xianzong was furious and wanted to execute Han Yu with capital punishment.
The imperial relatives interceded for Han Yu, and in the end, he was relegated to Chaozhou governor. Before leaving, he felt that he would never be able to return to Chang'an in this life, and asked his grandnephew to collect the bones.
This seven ancient poem was written by Han Yu in Chenzhou in 805 AD. Life is resigned, and the feeling of helplessness is revealed.
It can be seen that the official journey is sinister, and Han Yu had learned it early. But he was still able to maintain his original intention and speak righteously. Such arrogance is really rare.
The most obvious manifestation is that another genius poet died young at the age of 27, just like the death of Wang Bo.
Most of Li He's poems lamented the untimely life and the inner distress, expressing the pursuit of ideals and ambitions, leaving behind
His imagination is extremely rich, and later generations often call him
After Qu Yuan and Li Bai, there is another famous romantic poet in the history of Chinese literature.
Such a tender tune is rarely seen in Li He's poems. Just like Wang Bo's youth and invincibility, Li He also passed away at the best age.
Du Mu is an official for three generations, and his grandfather is the prime minister. Born in a political family,
His political essays even admired Sima Guang, a famous minister in the Northern Song Dynasty.
But the hero of his life is useless.
The reason is that the period when he was in politics was at the time when the conflict between Niu and Li was the fiercest, and he became a contradictory detachment in it, neither Niu nor Li, but Niu and Li.
Do you think I can stand in the middle? No way.
Poor Du Mu, even if he is a talented person, will never get into the core circle of power.
Du Mu himself is a poem. This poem is tragic and vicissitudes, from the talented young man to the old-fashioned old age. This poem is full of enthusiasm, from the vigorous fighting spirit to the cold drunkenness of the temples.
It is Li Shangyin who can be regarded as difficult brothers and sisters with Du Mu.
Almost a copy of Du Mu's fate, Li Shangyin was helplessly involved in the conflict between Niu and Li and became a political victim.
His mentor Linghu Chu admired him very much, and even asked him to write his will, not his son.
At the same time, frontier official Wang Maoyuan also admired him very much and married his daughter to him.
However, Linghu Chu is the Bull Party and Wang Maoyuan is the Li Party. The two parties, Niu and Li, are incompatible, and tragedy happened.
Li Shangyin lingered in pain in the cracks of the party struggle and paid the price of his life.
Li Shangyin is the originator of "Misty Poetry". For more than a thousand years, no one has understood the true meaning of his poems. Can only prevaricate and interpret with obscurity, as everyone knows,
In 858 AD, Li Shangyin died in depression. At this time, Du Mu had been dead for 6 years.
By the end of the Tang Dynasty in 907, this dynasty still had half a century to live. But for Tang poetry, the last big coffees both fell, and a great era has withered.