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【亚博最新网站是多少】罗马尼亚,和罗马帝国到底有什么关系?



发布日期:2021-03-17 00:39:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Romania is located at the junction of Eastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. It is the largest and most populous country on the Balkan Peninsula. It is sandwiched between the Slavic and Hungarian ethnic groups and belongs to the independent Romanian ethnic group.

罗马尼亚位于东欧和巴尔干半岛的交界处。它是巴尔干半岛上最大,人口最多的国家。它夹在斯拉夫和匈牙利族之间,属于独立的罗马尼亚族。

The word "Romania" comes from Latin, which derives from the English "Romania", which originally means "the place of the Romans". The Roman Empire originated in the city of Rome, but after the demise of the Western Roman Empire, Germans poured into Italy. It is hard to say that the Italians living in Rome are descendants of the ancient Romans.

“罗马尼亚”一词来自拉丁语,拉丁语源于英语“罗马尼亚”,其原意是“罗马人的住所”。罗马帝国起源于罗马城,但在西罗马帝国灭亡后,德国人涌入意大利。很难说居住在罗马的意大利人是古罗马人的后裔。

The Western Roman Empire died in 476 AD, and the Eastern Roman Empire died in 1453 AD. There have been many countries claiming to be the heirs of the Roman Empire, but none of them are descendants of the ancient Romans. So, where are the descendants of the ancient Romans? What is the relationship between Romania and the Roman Empire?

西罗马帝国于公元476年去世,东罗马帝国于公元1453年去世。有许多国家声称自己是罗马帝国的继承人,但没有一个国家是古代罗马人的后裔。那么,古罗马人的后裔在哪里?罗马尼亚与罗马帝国之间是什么关系?

In 753 BC, on the banks of the Tiber River in the southwestern Italian peninsula, a city named Rome was established. In 27 BC, Octavian was crowned emperor and the Roman Empire was born. By 180 AD, the empire reached its largest territory, and the entire Mediterranean Sea was surrounded by its territory and became the inner lake of the empire.

公元前753年,在意大利西南半岛的台伯河河畔,建立了一个名为罗马的城市。公元前27年,屋大维被加冕为皇帝,罗马帝国诞生了。到公元180年,帝国到达了最大的领土,整个地中海被其领土包围,成为帝国的内湖。

The northern border of the Roman Empire in the Balkans was the Danube, and the Dacia on the north bank of the river often crossed the Danube to harass the imperial territory. These Dacias were brave and good at fighting, even in the time of Caesar and Octavian, the Romans were not able to conquer them.

罗马帝国在巴尔干半岛的北部边界是多瑙河,而河北岸的达契亚人经常越过多瑙河来骚扰帝国领土。这些达契亚人勇敢善战,即使在凯撒和屋大维时期,罗马人也无法征服它们。

The Dacias are the ancestors of modern Romanians. They came to this land as early as 3000 BC. They belonged to the ancient Thracians. Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, called them the "Guetas" and recorded that they were good at horseback riding and archery, and distinguished between aristocrats and commoners.

达契亚人是现代罗马尼亚人的祖先。他们早在公元前3000年就来到了这片土地。他们属于古代色雷斯人。古希腊历史学家希罗多德斯称他们为“ Guetas”,并记录说他们擅长骑马和射箭,并在贵族和平民之间加以区分。

Before the rise of Rome, the Gettas had frequently traded with ancient Greek city-states, and many of them were regarded as servants and slaves of the ancient Greeks. They penetrated into all aspects of ancient Greek society and were deeply influenced by ancient Greek culture. , Build your own country.

在罗马崛起之前,Gettas经常与古希腊城邦进行贸易,其中许多人被视为古希腊人的仆人和奴隶。它们渗透到古希腊社会的各个方面,并深受古希腊文化的影响。 ,建立自己的国家。

The place where the Getas or Dacias are located is west of the Black Sea and north of the Danube. It has both fertile plains and hills for grazing. It is densely covered with jungles and rivers and is very suitable for human living. The population density is higher than that at that time. Most parts of Europe.

Getas或Dacias的所在地位于黑海以西,多瑙河以北。它既有肥沃的平原,又有放牧的丘陵。它被茂密的丛林和河流覆盖着,非常适合人类居住。人口密度比当时的人口密度高。欧洲大部分地区。

Therefore, almost at the same time when Octavian proclaimed the emperor, the Dacias had grown into a powerful regime along the Danube, posing a big threat to the border of the empire. However, the Roman Empire was busy conquering the eastern coast of the Mediterranean until the end of the first century AD that it had the energy to deal with the Dacia.

因此,几乎是在屋大维(Octavian)宣布皇帝的同时,达契亚人已成长为沿多瑙河的强大政权,对帝国边界构成了巨大威胁。然而,罗马帝国一直忙于征服地中海的东海岸,直到公元一世纪末它才有能力与达契亚打交道。

After several years of preparation, the Roman emperor Trajan built a bridge over the Danube before he completely defeated the Dacias and destroyed their country. In 106 AD, Dacia officially became a province of the Roman Empire.

经过几年的准备,罗马皇帝图拉真(Trajan)在完全击败达契亚人并摧毁他们的国家之前,在多瑙河上架起了一座桥。公元106年,达契亚正式成为罗马帝国的一个省。

In order to build this new province and make it the northern front line for the defense of the Balkans, the Roman Empire emigrated to here a large number of officials, soldiers, and professionals from all walks of life. The Romans called this new province full of opportunities the "Happy Dacia".

为了建设这个新省并使其成为保卫巴尔干半岛的北部前线,罗马帝国移居到这里,来自各行各业的大量官员,士兵和专业人员。罗马人称这个充满机遇的新省为“快乐达契亚”。

These Roman immigrants are of course citizens of the Roman Empire, but they are not strictly a Roman nation. From a small city-state on the Tiber River to a great empire that spans Europe, Asia, and Africa and surrounds the Mediterranean, the Romans rely not on immigration but cultural identity. As long as they recognize and accept Roman culture, they are Romans.

这些罗马移民当然是罗马帝国的公民,但他们并不是严格意义上的罗马民族。从台伯河上的一个小城邦到横跨欧洲,亚洲和非洲并环绕地中海的大帝国,罗马人不依赖移民,而是依靠文化认同。只要他们承认并接受罗马文化,他们就是罗马人。

According to statistics from historians, 60-80% of the citizens of Rome in the heyday of the empire came from various provinces, that is, conquered areas, and most of them were descendants of liberated slaves. They spoke of Roman Latin Language, engaged in various industries. Therefore, most of the Roman immigrants flocking to Dacia are actually such "cultural Romans."

根据历史学家的统计,在帝国鼎盛时期,罗马有60-80%的公民来自各个省份,也就是被征服的地区,其中大多数是解放奴隶的后裔。他们说罗马拉丁语,涉足各个行业。因此,大多数涌入达契亚的罗马移民实际上就是这样的“文化罗马人”。

On the other hand, because the Roman Empire was still in general military service at the time, male citizens in Rome would get a piece of land after they were discharged from the army. As the empire expanded, veterans were assigned to remote areas and became landlords of various provinces. Dacia also has many such veterans. They are not only local landlords, but also officials of various administrative departments.

另一方面,由于当时罗马帝国仍在服兵役,因此,罗马男性公民从军队退伍后将获得一块土地。随着帝国的扩张,退伍军人被分配到偏远地区,成为各个省的地主。达契亚(Dacia)也有许多这样的退伍军人。他们不仅是当地的房东,还是各个行政部门的官员。

In Dacia cities, there are more Romans than Dacias. In the countryside, the opposite is true. Landlords from Rome hired large numbers of Dacias to cultivate the land. As a result, the Dacians began to learn Latin and served in the empire.

在达契亚城市中,罗马人多于达契亚人。在农村,情况恰恰相反。罗马的房东雇用了大士(Dacias)来耕种土地。结果,达契亚人开始学习拉丁语,并在帝国任职。

In 212 AD, the Roman emperor ordered the granting of Roman citizenship to all free citizens in the empire, including the Dacia. The equality of identities further enhanced the communication between Dacia and Romans, and intermarriage increased.

公元212年,罗马皇帝下令向包括达契亚在内的帝国所有自由公民授予罗马国籍。身份平等进一步加强了达契亚人与罗马人之间的交流,通婚增加了。

After several generations of fusion, a Dacia-Roman who speaks Latin and is mixed with Dacia vocabulary is formed. They are closer to the Romans in culture, customs and lifestyle, and still retain the ancient Dacia Tradition.

经过几代人的融合,形成了讲拉丁语并与达契亚语词汇混合的达契亚-罗马语。他们在文化,习俗和生活方式上更接近罗马人,并且仍然保留着古老的达契亚传统。

At this time, the Roman Empire, which had expanded to its limit, entered a period of decline, and nomads from Eastern and Central Europe kept attacking the Balkan borders of the empire. In order to use the Danube as the northern defense line to save the empire's defensive force, Dacia province was abandoned.

这时,已经扩张到极限的罗马帝国进入了衰落期,东欧和中欧的游牧民族不断进攻帝国的巴尔干边界。为了使用多瑙河作为北方防御线来保存帝国的防御力量,达契亚省被放弃了。

Beginning in AD 271, Roman nobles, high-ranking officials and wealthy people left Dacia one after another. Ordinary Dacia-Romans had nowhere to go, and had to resist the invasion of the barbarians while being tenacious in this ancestral land. To survive.

从公元271年开始,罗马贵族,高级官员和富人相继离开达契亚。普通的达契亚-罗马人无处可去,不得不在野蛮顽强的同时抵制野蛮人的入侵。生存。

Although Dacia was abandoned by the empire and was briefly ruled by many barbarians, the Roman Empire still bordered it, and Dacia’s "Romanization" continued. Especially after Christianity became the state religion in 313 AD, most of the Dacia-Romans quickly converted to Christianity.

尽管达契亚被帝国抛弃,并由许多蛮族短暂统治,但罗马帝国仍与之接壤,达契亚的“罗马化”继续进行。尤其是在公元313年基督教成为国教之后,大多数达契亚罗马人迅速转变为基督教。

The decline of the empire exceeded everyone's imagination. In 395 AD, the Roman Emperor Theodosius I divided the empire into two parts, which were inherited by two sons, and the empire fell into division. In 476 AD, the Western Roman Empire was destroyed by the barbarians.

帝国的衰落超出了所有人的想象。公元395年,罗马皇帝狄奥多西一世将帝国分为两个部分,由两个儿子继承,帝国分裂。公元476年,蛮族摧毁了西罗马帝国。

The Eastern Roman Empire tried to regain the territories of the Western Roman Empire in the middle of the 6th century, and almost succeeded, but ultimately fell short. The center of the Eastern Roman Empire had to be transferred to Greece, and the process of “Hellenicization” began.

东罗马帝国试图在6世纪中叶重新夺回西罗马帝国的领土,并且几乎成功了,但最终失败了。东罗马帝国的中心不得不转移到希腊,“希腊化”进程开始了。

The birthplace of the Roman Empire became the territory of the Germans. When the Frankish kingdom established by Germans accepted Christianity and recognized the status of the Pope of Rome, the original Roman citizens who remained here gradually became Germanic, and it is hard to be called "Romans."

罗马帝国的发源地成为德国人的领土。当德国人建立的法兰克王国接受基督教并承认罗马教皇的地位时,留在这里的原始罗马公民逐渐成为日耳曼人,因此很难称为“罗马人”。

Dacia was no different from other provinces at first, being successfully romanized. Later, it was precisely because it was abandoned very early to avoid Germanization and Hellenism. This is the main reason why they became descendants of the "Romans".

达契亚起初与其他省份并无不同,被成功罗马化。后来,恰恰是因为它很早就被放弃以避免德国化和希腊化。这就是他们成为“罗马人”后裔的主要原因。

In the 7th century AD, the Eastern Roman Empire’s rule of the Balkans was attacked by the Yugoslavs. These Yugoslavs from the Eastern European plains occupied most of the land on the southern bank of the Danube, completely separating Dacia from the Eastern Roman Empire.

公元7世纪,东罗马帝国对巴尔干地区的统治遭到了南斯拉夫的袭击。这些来自东欧平原的南斯拉夫人占领了多瑙河南岸的大部分土地,使达契亚与东罗马帝国完全分开。

The Yugoslavs assimilated the Bolgars and became the most powerful force on the Balkans. Surprisingly, the Dacias not only succeeded in maintaining their national identity, but also assimilated a part of the Slavs.

南斯拉夫同化了巴尔加斯人,成为巴尔干半岛上最强大的力量。令人惊讶的是,达契亚人不仅成功地保持了民族身份,而且还吸收了斯拉夫人的一部分。

In addition to Dacia-Romans culturally higher than the Slavs still in tribal society, making it difficult for them to identify with the early Slavic culture, Dacia’s special geographical environment also played a big role.

除了达契亚罗马人的文化程度高于仍在部落社会中的斯拉夫人,这使他们难以与斯拉夫早期文化区分开来,达契亚的特殊地理环境也发挥了重要作用。

The towering Carpathian Mountains lie across the territory of Dacia, hindering the passage of various barbarians from invading the Balkan Peninsula, making them have to detour from the Pannonian Plain or the plains along the Black Sea, which is further west, and cannot completely defeat Dacia. Chia-Romans.

高耸的喀尔巴阡山脉横穿达契亚(Dacia)领土,阻碍了各种野蛮人入侵巴尔干半岛,使他们不得不从Pannonian平原或黑海平原绕行,后者更向西,无法完全击败达契亚。 Chia-Romans。

The ancestors of the Dacia were originally nomads who were good at riding and shooting. Coupled with the military skills learned from the Roman Empire, the fertile Dacia has a rich population. The combination of these factors formed a powerful nation that was able to withstand the invasion of Yugoslavia.

达契亚的祖先是游牧民族,他们擅长骑马和射击。加上从罗马帝国学到的军事技能,肥沃的达契亚人口众多。这些因素的结合形成了一个能够抵御南斯拉夫入侵的强大国家。

Therefore, after the Dacia-Romans assimilated a part of Yugoslavia, the Latin they used added a large number of Slavic words, which eventually formed Romanians and became the predecessor of the modern Romanian nation. According to estimates by historians, this process was completely completed in the 9th-10th century AD.

因此,在达契亚罗马人吸收了南斯拉夫的一部分后,他们使用的拉丁语增加了许多斯拉夫语,最终形成了罗马尼亚人,并成为了现代罗马尼亚国家的前身。据历史学家估计,这一过程是在公元9至10世纪完全完成的。

At the same time that the Romanian nation was formed, the Eastern Roman Empire also completed the Hellenization. Many historians believe that Roman culture itself is part of Greek culture. Although the Romans included Greece in their territory, they were spiritually conquered by the Greeks.

在罗马尼亚建国的同时,东罗马帝国也完成了希腊化。许多历史学家认为,罗马文化本身就是希腊文化的一部分。尽管罗马人将希腊纳入其领土,但他们在精神上被希腊人征服了。

Before the split, both Latin and Greek were spoken in the empire. There were two versions of all official documents, and the eastern provinces used Greek as the main official language. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, all areas where Latin was the mother tongue fell, and the importance and popularity of Latin declined sharply.

在分裂之前,拉丁语和希腊语在帝国中都被使用。所有正式文件都有两种版本,东部省份以希腊文为主要官方语言。西罗马帝国陷落后,所有以拉丁语为母语的地区都沦陷了,拉丁语的重要性和受欢迎程度急剧下降。

In the 7th century AD, the Eastern Roman Empire announced that Latin was no longer officially used. Of the former Roman provinces, only Romanians retained Latin. However, because the barbarians cut off the land access, the Romanians were unable to maintain contact with the Holy See, so they were completely under the religious control of the Eastern Roman Empire.

公元7世纪,东罗马帝国宣布不再正式使用拉丁语。在前罗马各省中,只有罗马尼亚人保留了拉丁语。但是,由于蛮族切断了土地通道,罗马尼亚人无法与罗马教廷保持联系,因此他们完全处于东罗马帝国的宗教控制之下。

In the middle of the 11th century AD, the Greek-speaking Holy See of Constantinople officially split from the Latin-speaking Holy See. The Holy See of Constantinople has since been called the Orthodox Church, and the Holy See is called the Catholic Church. Of course, the differences between them are by no means limited to language, and there are profound contradictions in doctrine and missionary power.

在公元11世纪中叶,君士坦丁堡讲希腊语的罗马教廷正式与讲拉丁语的罗马教廷分开。君士坦丁堡的罗马教廷自此被称为东正教教堂,罗马教廷被称为天主教堂。当然,它们之间的差异绝不仅限于语言,在教义和传教权力上也存在着深刻的矛盾。

The Orthodox Church is the state religion of the Eastern Roman Empire. Relying on the cultural and military strength of the empire, the Yugoslavs converted to the Orthodox Church. Naturally, the Romanians would have no other choice. This was the only connection between the Romanians and the Eastern Roman Empire.

东正教是东罗马帝国的国教。南斯拉夫人依靠帝国的文化和军事力量s依东正教教堂。自然,罗马尼亚人别无选择。这是罗马尼亚人和东罗亚博最新网站是多少马帝国之间的唯一联系。

In the following hundreds of years, the nobility among the Romanians gradually became feudal lords. Because the terrain of Romania is divided by the Carpathian Mountains, the three principalities of Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia are formed in the west, south and east of the mountain.

在随后的数百年中,罗马尼亚人中的贵族逐渐成为封建领主。由于罗马尼亚的地形被喀尔巴阡亚博最新网站是多少山脉划分,因此特兰西瓦尼亚,瓦拉奇亚和摩尔达维亚的三个公国分别形成在该山的西,南和东。

The Principality of Transylvania was conquered by Hungary in the 12th century. With the demise of the Eastern Roman Empire, the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia claimed to the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, and all lost their independent status.

特兰西瓦尼亚公国在12世纪被匈牙利征服。随着东罗马帝国的灭亡,瓦拉奇亚和摩尔达维亚的两个公国在15世纪宣称自己成为奥斯曼帝国,并且都失去了独立地位。

At the beginning of the 19th century, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars brought a wave of ideological liberation and national independence to all of Europe. With the decline of the Ottoman Empire, in order to increase their influence in the Balkans and support the independence movements of the various ethnic groups ruled by the Ottomans, the European powers such as Britain, France and Russia took this opportunity to launch an independent struggle.

19世纪初,法国大革命和拿破仑战争给整个欧洲带来了意识形态解放和民族独立的热潮。随着奥斯曼帝国的衰落,为了增强其在巴尔干半岛的影响力并亚博最新域名支持由奥斯曼帝国统治的各个民族的独立运动,英国,法国和俄罗斯等欧洲大国借此机会开展了独立斗争。

In February 1862, Wallachia and Moldavia, both under Ottoman rule, formed the "Kingdom of Romania". This was the first time that "Romania" appeared in official documents and became the name of the country.

1862年2月,瓦拉奇亚和摩尔达维亚在奥斯曼帝国的统治下,组成了“罗马尼亚王国”。这是“罗马尼亚”首次出现在正式文件中,并成为该国的名称。

After the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, the "Romans" in the upper echelons of the empire disappeared faster than the Western Roman Empire a thousand years ago. Except for most of their deaths in the war, the surviving "Romans" were quickly assimilated by the various nations under their rule.

东罗马帝国沦陷后,帝国上层的“罗马人”比一千多年前的西罗马帝国消失得更快。除了战争中大多数死亡外,幸存的“罗马人”在其统治下被各个国家迅速吸收。

The Romanians were called "Romania" by other peoples because they retained the "Roman" ancestry and cultural customs and used Latin before the East and West split. Now, this title has finally become the name of their country.

罗马尼亚人被其他民族称为“罗马尼亚”,因为他们保留了“罗马”的血统和文化习俗,并在东西方分裂之前使用拉丁语。现在,这个头衔终于成为他们国家的名字。

The establishment of the "Kingdom of Romania" means the beginning of national independence for the Romanians. But at this time the "Romania Kingdom" was still attached to the Ottoman Empire, and it was only after the Russian-Turkish War in 1877 that it declared its separation from the Ottoman Empire.

建立“罗马尼亚王国”意味着罗马尼亚人开始民族独立。但是此时,“罗马尼亚王国”仍然隶属于奥斯亚博最新域名曼帝国,只是在1877年的俄土战争之后,才宣布脱离奥斯曼帝国。

In February 1880, after unremitting struggle, the "Kingdom of Romania" was recognized by all of Europe and officially became an independent country. In World War I, Romania went to war against the Austro-Hungarian Empire and took back Transylvania after the war. In 1918, Romania finally achieved the independence of all its territories.

经过不懈的努力,1880年2月,“罗马尼亚王国”得到了整个欧洲的承认,并正式成为一个独立的国家。在第一次世界大战中,罗马尼亚与奥匈帝国作战,并在战后夺回了特兰西瓦尼亚。 1918年,罗马尼亚终于实现了其所有领土的独立。

After independence, Romania experienced World War II, joined and withdrawn from the Soviet-Eastern camp, and joined the European Union in 2006. Although the territory has changed, the Romanian principalities in history have basically been retained, forming a unified Romanian state.

独立后,罗马尼亚经历了第二次世界大战,于2006年加入苏联和从东欧撤退,并加入了欧洲联盟。亚博最新网站是多少尽管领土发生了变化,但罗马尼亚的历史公国基本上得以保留,形成了一个统一的罗马尼亚国家。

The culture and religion of the Roman Empire still affect modern Europeans, but this empire does not have any direct successors, and only the Romanian nation can be regarded as its remnant. At the moment when he decided to abandon the Dacia province, the Roman emperor would not have expected this ending.

罗马帝国的文化和宗教仍然影响着现代欧洲人,但是这个帝国没有任何直接继承者,只有罗马尼亚这个民族可以被视为其残余。在他决定放弃达契亚省的那一刻,罗马皇帝不会期望这一结局。

 
 
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