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亚博最新网站是多少|35万朝鲜人生活在中亚,他们为何要来这里?



发布日期:2021-03-11 00:39:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

The Korean ethnic group is the main ethnic group in North Korea and South Korea, and has lived on the Korean Peninsula for a long time. However, the Korean Peninsula is not the only place where the Koreans live. There are about 7 million overseas Korean compatriots scattered all over the world, in about 160 countries, mainly in China, Russia, the United States, Japan and Central Asia.

朝鲜族是朝鲜和韩国的主要种族,在朝鲜半岛生活了很长一段时间。但是,朝鲜半岛并不是朝鲜人居住的唯一地方。大约有700万海外朝鲜同胞散布在世界各地,分布在大约160个国家/地区,主要分布在中国,俄罗斯,美国,日本和中亚。

The reasons why Koreans migrated to different countries are very different. Some of them moved voluntarily for economic reasons, and some were forced to move for political reasons. The 350,000 North Korean immigrants in Central Asia belong to the latter. They did not voluntarily immigrate to Central Asia. They were forced to migrate due to the political and economic environment at the time. They were inseparable from the corrupt rule of the Joseon Dynasty, the aggression and oppression of the Japanese Empire, and the forced immigration policy of the former Soviet Union.

韩国人移民到不同国家的原因非常不同。他们中的一些人出于经济原因自愿搬家,而另一些人则出于政治原因被迫搬家。在中亚的35万朝鲜移民属于后者。他们没有自愿移民到中亚。由于当时的政治和经济环境,他们被迫迁移。它们与朝鲜王朝的腐败统治,日本帝国的侵略和压迫以及前苏联的强迫移民政策密不可分。

What kind of relationship does the Korean people have with the former Soviet Union? Why were they deported to Central Asia?

朝鲜人民与前苏联有什么样的关系?他们为什么被驱逐到中亚?

There have been three unification dynasties in the history of the Korean peninsula. The first was when Silla unified the three Koreas; the second was when the Goryeo dynasty ended the "post-three kingdoms" situation; the last was when Lee Sung-gyu overthrew the Goryeo regime and established the Lee dynasty (1392) -1897).

朝鲜半岛历史上有三个统一朝代。首先是新罗统一了三个朝鲜。第二个是高丽王朝结束“后三个王国”的情况。最后一次是李成奎推翻高丽政权并建立了李朝(1392)-1897)。

The Lee dynasty ruled the Korean peninsula for more than 500 years. Although it ruled for a long time, the regime was not stable in the later period. Because the dynasty was divided seriously, party disputes frequently occurred, and many coups broke out. The most famous in modern times is Jiashen. coup.

李朝统治朝鲜半岛已有500多年的历史。尽管统治了很长一段时间,但政权在后期却不稳定。由于朝代分裂严重,政党纠纷频繁发生,许多政变爆发。近代最著名的是甲申。政变。

In 1884, the Civilization Party launched the Jiashen coup with the support of Japan. Although the Qing Dynasty sent troops to suppress it successfully, it gave Japan an equal opportunity in Korea. Because Japan took the opportunity to sign a North Korean troop withdrawal treaty with the Qing Dynasty. To inform the other party was equivalent to weakening the Qing suzerainty over Korea and paved the way for the Sino-Japanese War of Jiawu.

1884年,文明党在日本的支持下发动了嘉申政变。尽管清朝派兵成功镇压了它,但它给了日本在朝鲜的平等机会。因为日本借此机会与清朝签署了朝鲜撤军条约。告知对方,相当于削弱了清朝对朝鲜的宗主权,为嘉武抗日战争铺平了道路。

The Dongxue Party uprising was the fuse of the Sino-Japanese War of Jiawu. Corruption was serious during the period of the Li dynasty. In order to solve the financial crisis caused by the deficit of the treasury, the rulers formulated the land administration, military administration, and the return of grain and other harsh tax systems. The peasants caused the peasants' lives to be miserable. Therefore, in order to oppose imperialism and feudalism, the peasants organized an uprising of the Dongxue Party.

东学党起义是嘉武抗日战争的导火线。李朝时期的腐败很严重。为了解决国库赤字造成的金融危机,统治者制定了土地管理,军事管理,粮食归还等严厉税收制度。农民使农民的生活悲惨。因此,为了反对帝国主义和封建主义,农民组织了东学党的起义。

Due to the large scale of the uprising, the Joseon Dynasty was unable to resist and asked the suzerain government of Qing Dynasty for help. As a result, after Qing Dynasty sent troops to quell the rebellion, Japan used this as an excuse to launch the Sino-Japanese War of Jiawu. In the end, the war ended with Japan's victory. Chinese power was removed from the Korean Peninsula. After that, Japan strengthened its control over the Korean Peninsula and accelerated its colonial aggression.

由于起义规模巨大,朝鲜王朝无法抗拒,并向清朝宗藩政府寻求帮助。结果,清朝派出军队平息了叛乱之后,日本以此为借亚博最新网站是多少口发动了中日甲午战争。最后,战争以日本的胜利而告终。中国从朝鲜半岛撤军。此后,日本加强了对朝鲜半岛的控制,并加速了其殖民侵略。

It was against this background that the Korean people immigrated to the Russian Far East. In addition to the political situation of internal and external troubles, part of the reason was the great famine in the north. The Korean Peninsula is a mountainous terrain. More than 70% of the land is mountain plateaus. The arable plains are only a few scattered areas, and they are scattered among the mountains, making them unsuitable for large-scale farming.

正是在这种背景下,朝鲜人民移民到了俄罗斯远东地区。除了内部和外部麻烦的政治局势外,部分原因还在于北部的大饥荒。朝鲜半岛是山区。超过70%的土地是高山高原。耕地仅是几个零散的区域,它们散布在群山之中,因此不适合大规模耕种。

Moreover, after the establishment of the Lee Dynasty, the population of North Korea has been growing, from 4 million in the 16th century to 17 million in the late 19th century, forming a barren land with a dense population. In addition, frequent natural disasters in the north have caused great famines, so in order to escape the harsh living environment, the North Korean people began to migrate to neighboring countries one after another.

此外,李朝建立后,朝鲜人口不断增长,从16世纪的400万增长到19世纪后期的1700万,形成了人口稠密的贫瘠土地。此外,北部频繁发生的自然灾害造成了严重的饥荒,因此,为了逃避恶劣的生活环境,朝鲜人民开始陆续移居邻国。

Their first choice for immigration is China, but the Qing government was implementing a closed-door policy at the time, imposing a very strict ban on the Northeast region and not accepting North Korean refugees who have repeatedly committed violations. Therefore, those Koreans whose migration has been hindered, set their immigration goals more. Easy to accept their own Russia.

他们的首选移民是中国,但清政府当时实行封闭政策,对东北地区实行非常严格的禁令,不接受屡犯侵权的朝鲜难民。因此,那些移民受到阻碍的韩国人更加设定了移民目标。容易接受自己的俄罗斯。

Originally, the territories of North Korea and Russia were not connected. The situation changed after Russia's eastward expansion. The driving force that drove Russia to explore eastward came from fur, because Europe has a great demand for fur, and Siberia in the east is rich in fur. In order to occupy Siberia and obtain huge profits from the fur trade, Russia began its eastward expansion since the 16th century.

最初,朝鲜和俄罗斯的领土没有连接。俄罗斯向东扩张后,情况发生了变化。驱使俄罗斯向东探索的动力来自皮草,因为欧洲对皮草的需求量很大,而东部的西伯利亚拥有丰富的皮草。为了占领西伯利亚并从毛皮贸易中获得丰厚利润,俄罗斯自16世纪开始向东扩张。

Later, the Western European fur market shrank, and Russia focused on opening up Far Eastern trade. In order to find an ice-free port in the Far East, he invaded Northeast China and forced the Qing Dynasty to sign the unequal treaties "Beijing Treaty" and "Aihui Treaty", occupying the south of Waixing'anling, the north of Heilongjiang, and the east of Wusuli River (including Sakhalin Island) has a territory of about 1 million square kilometers, with the Pacific Ocean mouth of Vladivostok, making China, Russia, and North Korea adjacent to the territories, and the Koreans have the geographical conditions to move to the Russian Far East.

后来,西欧毛皮市场萎缩,俄罗斯将重点放在开放远东贸易上。为了在远东寻找无冰港口,他入侵了中国东北,迫使清朝签署了不平等的《北京条约》和《爱会条约》,占领了黑龙江北部的外兴安岭南部。 ,乌苏里河(包括萨哈林岛)以东,面积约100万平方公里,符拉迪沃斯托克(Pladivostok)的太平洋口使中国,俄罗斯和朝鲜与该领土相邻,而朝鲜人则具有地理条件搬到俄罗斯远东地区。

In order to consolidate its rule in the outer northeast, Russia urgently needs labor to develop the Far East. It promulgated immigration regulations and allocated land to attract Tsarist Russian residents to move to the east. At the beginning, many people rushed to the land, but the migration was a long way. In addition, Russian farmers did not understand the local planting conditions. The low grain production affected the border supply. Gradually, no one wanted to move to the east. So the group of people who fled North Korean border residents are "just rain" for Russia.

为了巩固其在东北东北部的统治,俄罗斯迫切需要劳动力来发展远东地区。它颁布了移民法规,并分配了土地以吸引沙皇俄国居民向东方迁移。刚开始时,很多人都赶到了土地上,但是迁移距离很长。此外,俄罗斯农民不了解当地的种植条件。粮食减产影响了边境供应。渐渐地,没有人想搬到东方。因此,逃离朝鲜边境居民的那一群人对俄罗斯来说“只是下雨了”。

Because the North Koreans can not only fill the labor force in the Far East, but also solve the problem of grain production, so Russia has begun to attract them with substantive benefits such as "providing houses for housing under Russian law protection." At first, not many Koreans flowed into the Russian Far East, only more than 10,000. It was not until Japan annexed the Korean Empire that Korean immigrants in the Russian Far East began to explode.

由于朝鲜人不仅可以填补远东地区的劳动力,而且还可以解决粮食生产问题,因此俄罗斯已经开始向他们提供“在俄罗斯法律保护下提供住房”等实质性好处。最初,流入俄罗斯远东地区的韩国人并不多,只有一万多。直到日本吞并大韩帝国后,俄罗斯远东地区的朝鲜移民才开始爆炸。

Japan's national policy at the time was the "mainland policy." The purpose of occupying the Korean peninsula was to invade China and finally dominate the entire Northeast Asia, which happened to be essentially the same as Russia's Far East policy. After the Sino-Japanese War, Japan forced the Qing Dynasty to sign the Shimonoseki Treaty, an unequal treaty. The treaty not only ended the vassal relationship between North Korea and the Qing Dynasty, but also forced China to cede Liaodong and other places. Russia was worried that Japan’s annexation of the Liaodong Peninsula would affect its presence in the Far East. Together with Germany and France, they interfered in returning the Liao Dynasty.

当时日本的国家政策是“大陆政策”。占领朝鲜半岛的目的是入侵中国,并最终统治整个东北亚,而这恰好与俄罗斯的远东政策相同。抗日战争后,日本迫使清朝签署了一项不平等的《马关条约》。该条约不仅结束了朝鲜与清朝之间的附庸关系,而且还迫使中国割让了辽东等地。俄罗斯担心日本对辽东半岛的吞并会影响其在远东的存在。他们与德国和法国一起干涉了辽朝的归还。

After the three countries interfered and returned to Liaoning, North Korea discovered that Russia's comprehensive national power was stronger than Japan. In order to find a new umbrella, North Korea took the initiative to approach Russia, and the Korean peninsula began to become the home of the Russian-Japanese game. Under the confrontation of pro-Russian and pro-Japanese forces, the Joseon Dynasty has successively erupted in the Yiwei Incident, the Chunsheng Gate, and the relocation of the Russian Pavilion. Finally, when the Japanese influence was weakened, the Joseon Dynasty returned to the Joseon Palace from the Russian Embassy and changed. The name of the country proclaimed itself emperor and established the "Korean Empire" (1897-1910).

在这三个国家干涉并返回辽宁之后,朝鲜发现俄罗斯的综合国力强于日本。为了寻找新的保护伞,朝鲜主动接近俄罗斯,朝鲜半岛开始成为日俄战争的发源地。在亲俄和日军的对抗下,朝鲜王朝曾在伊未事件,春生门和俄罗斯馆迁址方面相继爆发。最终,当日本的影响力减弱时,朝鲜王朝从俄罗斯大使馆返回朝鲜宫并进行了改变。这个国家的名字自称皇帝,并建立了“韩国帝国”(1897-1910)。

In order to control the Korean peninsula independently and realize the mainland policy, Japan broke out the Russo-Japanese War (1904) with Russia. During the war, Russia was in a situation of internal and external troubles, because not only a revolutionary movement occurred in the country, but also a very serious financial crisis. In addition, the armament was relatively backward, and the military power was basically concentrated in Europe. Therefore, Russia had some problems when confronting Japan. Powerless.

为了独立控制朝鲜半岛并实现大陆政策,日本与俄罗斯爆发了日俄战争(1904年)。战争期间,俄罗斯处于内部和外部麻烦的境地,因为不仅在该国发生了革命运动,而且还发生了非常严重的金融危机。此外,军备相对落后,军事力量基本集中在欧洲。因此,俄罗斯在与日本对抗时存在一些问题。无力。

Japan had the support of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance at that time. Because Russia’s Far East expansion had long aroused dissatisfaction with the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom and Japan joined together to form the "Anglo-Japanese Alliance", which not only put pressure on Russia during the war, but also provided Japan with arms. And capital, so that Japan has the strength to fight a protracted war with Russia, so the result of the Russo-Japanese War is Japan's final victory.

当时日本得到了英日同盟的支持。由于俄罗斯的远东扩张长期以来引起了对英国的不满,英国和日本联合组成了“日日同盟”,不仅在战争中对俄罗斯施加了压力,而且还向日本提供了武器。资本,使日本有实力与俄罗斯进行旷日持久的战争,日俄战争的结果就是日本的最后胜利。

After the Russian forces withdrew from the Korean Peninsula, Japan forced the Korean Empire to sign the "Korea-Japan Merger Treaty" (1910), which initiated a series of economic plunder and colonial oppression on the Korean Peninsula. The Korean people began to flee politically, and the Russian Far East once again became one of its refuges. During this period alone, there were about 100,000 Koreans who poured into the Far East. They gathered in Vladivostok and developed Vladivostok into a North Korean anti-Japanese base.

俄国军队撤出朝鲜半岛后,日本强迫大韩帝国签署《朝鲜-日本合并条约》(1910年),引发了对朝鲜半岛的一系列经济掠夺和殖民压迫。朝鲜人民开始逃离政治,俄罗斯远东再次成为其避难所之一。仅在此期间,就有约100,000名韩国人涌入了远东地区。他们聚集在符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok),并将符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok)发展成朝鲜的抗日根据地。

In order to combat Japan's Far Eastern forces, Russia acquiesced in the anti-Japanese behavior of North Korean immigrants, so more and more North Koreans moved to eastern Russia in order to engage in independence movements. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, many Koreans joined the ranks of the revolutionary army, became socialists and participated in the struggle against Japan and the country.

为了与日本的远东部队作战,俄罗斯默许了朝鲜移民的抗日行为,因此越来越多的朝鲜人迁移到俄罗斯东部以从事独立运动。 1917年俄国革命爆发后,许多朝鲜人加入了革命军队伍,成为社会主义者,并参与了与日本和国家的斗争。

Until the establishment of the Soviet regime, North Koreans did not stop their migration, and gradually developed into the largest ethnic group in Vladivostok, with a population of around 200,000 at its peak. There were no North Korean immigrants in Central Asia at that time, and the North Koreans were unwilling to live in the past. The Far East was their inner home. It was the forced immigration policy during the Soviet era that led to this group of Far East North Korean immigrants being deported to Central Asia.

在苏维埃政权建立之前,朝鲜人没有停止迁移,而是逐渐发展成符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok)最大的族群,其顶峰时期约有20万人。当时在中亚没有朝鲜移民,朝鲜人不愿过去居住。远东是他们的内心之家。苏联时期的强迫移民政策导致这批远东朝鲜移民被驱逐到中亚。

Before the Second World War, the Soviet Union was the only major socialist country, and it was in a relatively dangerous situation. There was the possibility of war with other powers at any time, especially Japan. Because Germany, Japan and Italy signed the "Anti-Communist International Agreement" under the banner of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet in order to fight for world hegemony, and directed the spearhead of the war against the Soviet Union.

第二次世界大战之前,苏联是唯一的社会主义大国,处境相对危险。任何时候都有可能与其他大国,尤其是日本发生战争。因为德国,日本和意大利为了反抗世界霸权而在反共和反苏的旗帜下签署了《反共国际协定》,成为反苏战争的先锋。

The reason why the Soviet Union feared Japan was also because Japan gradually established the hegemony of the Far East after the Russo-Japanese War. Northeast China and the Korean peninsula were occupied by Japan, and these invaded places bordered the eastern border of the Soviet Union. So the Soviet Union was worried at the time. His own territory was violated by Japan.

苏联惧怕日本的原因还在于日俄战争后日本逐渐确立了远东霸权。日本占领了中国东北和朝鲜半岛,这些入侵地区与苏联东部边界接壤。所以苏联当时很担心。日本侵犯了他自己的领土。

For the Soviet Union, the North Koreans living in the eastern border area are like a "time bomb" because their large population is not conducive to control, and they also have their own settlements, and there is the possibility of autonomy; plus Japan's Far East The espionage activities are very active, and the North Koreans look similar to them. The Soviet Union finds it difficult to distinguish them. They feel that they are easily bought by the Japanese and do things that collude with the enemy and endanger the national interests of the Soviet Union.

对于苏联来说,生活在东部边境地区的朝鲜人就像“定时炸弹”,因为他们的人口众多,不利于控制,他们也有自己的定居点,并且有自治的可能性。加上日本的远东地区间谍活动非常活跃,朝鲜人看起来也很类似。苏联发现很难区分它们。他们觉得自己很容易被日本人买走,并且做一些与敌人勾结,危害苏联国家利益的事情。

In order to prevent trouble before it happened, the Soviet Union moved the Koreans out of the border on the grounds of national security when the situation in the Far East was turbulent (that is, Japan launched a full-scale war of aggression against China) and settled in the Central Asian region behind. About 170,000 Koreans were forced to relocate to Central Asia in 1937, about 95,000 moved to Kazakhstan, and 75,000 moved to Uzbekistan.

为了预防麻烦,在远东局势动荡(日本对中国发动全面侵略战争)的情况下,苏联出于国家安全的考虑将朝鲜人赶出了边境。并定居在中亚地区后面。 1937年,大约170,000朝鲜人被迫迁往中亚,大约95,000朝鲜人移居哈萨克斯坦,以及75,000朝鲜人迁往乌兹别克斯坦。

Humanitarianism was not considered during the migration process, but the North Koreans were intensively packed in trains carrying goods and livestock. In order to avoid the occurrence of settlements, after arriving in Central Asia, they will be exiled in stages and will not be grouped together. Moreover, the long distance was not considered before the migration, and the food and clothing prepared were few. As a result, many elderly and children could not bear the cold and hunger and died on the train.

在移民过程中没有考虑人道主义,但是朝鲜人被密集地装在运送货物和牲畜的火车上。为了避免定居点的发生,到达中亚之后,定居点将被分阶段流放,并且不会被分组在一起。此外,迁移之前没有考虑过长距离,准备的食物和衣服很少。结果,许多老人和孩子无法忍受寒冷和饥饿而在火车上死亡。

In addition to political reasons, the reason why the Soviet Union deported North Koreans to Central Asia was selfish. Because of the vast territory of Central Asia, a lot of uninhabited land has not been used. The Soviet Union wanted to develop Central Asia into farmland and develop agricultural land to expand the acreage of rice and grain, so it put Koreans who were good at farming there.

除了政治原因外,苏联将朝鲜人驱逐到中亚的原因也是自私的。由于中亚幅员辽阔,许多无人居住的土地未被使用。苏联想将中亚发展成农田,并发展农业用地来扩大稻米和谷物的种植面积,因此苏联把擅长耕种的韩国人带到了那里。

In addition, between 1930-1933, a great famine broke out in Kazakhstan, killing 1.5 million locals, accounting for about a quarter of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and some of them migrated to China in order to escape, so the population of Kazakhstan is very small. The arrival of the North Koreans can just fill this vacancy.

此外,在1930-1933年之间,哈萨克斯坦爆发了一场大饥荒,造成150万人丧生,约占哈萨克斯坦共和国人口的四分之一,其中一些人为了逃避而移民到中国,因此哈萨克斯坦的面积很小。朝鲜人的到来可以填补这一空缺。

The Korean ethnic group is not the only ethnic group forced to be expelled by the Soviet Union. After the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, ethnic groups such as Chechnya and Ingushetia were also collectively exiled to Central Asia. The difference is that the former was deported to Central Asia to solve the worries about the border, while the latter cooperated with fascists during the war between the Soviet Union and Germany, and was named a "betrayal nation" by the Soviet Union, and was finally exiled to Central Asia.

朝鲜族不是唯一被苏联驱逐出境的族群。伟大卫国战争爆发后,车臣和印古什等民族也集体流放到中亚。区别在于前者被驱逐到中亚以解决对边界的担忧,而后者则在苏德战争期间与法西斯主义者合作,并被苏联称为“背叛国”,最终流放到中亚。

Therefore, the immigration status of North Koreans is quite special. Although they are not subject to the control of labor camps like "betraying the nation," their words and deeds are still being monitored by the concentration camp authorities. Because they were subject to administrative expulsion, their citizenship was restricted, they were forbidden to move to other border areas of the Soviet Union, and they could not communicate in Korean, so their descendants almost lost the ability to speak the Korean language and only spoke Russian.

因此,朝鲜人的移民身份非常特殊。尽管他们不受“背叛国家”之类的劳教所的控制,但他们的言行仍然受到集中营当局的监视。由于他们被行政驱逐出境,其公民身份受到限制,被禁止移居苏联其他边境地区,并且他们无法使用朝鲜语进行交流,因此他们的后代几乎丧失了讲朝鲜语的能力,只能说俄语。

At the beginning of the migration of North Koreans to Central Asia, they basically lived in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Judging from the conditions of these two places at the time, they could not accommodate so many immigrants. Because of the serious lack of housing conditions and health care, some North Korean immigrants can only live in barracks or animal shelters, and their living environment is extremely poor. They did not start to improve until the collective farms were rebuilt.

在朝鲜人迁移到中亚之初,他们基本上生活在哈萨克斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦。从当时这两个地方的条件来看,他们不能容纳那么多移民。由于严重缺乏住房条件和医疗保健,一些朝鲜移民只能住在营房或动物收容所中,其生活环境极为恶劣。直到集体农场被重建,他们才开始改善。

At that time, nearly half of the North Koreans were placed in collective and state-owned farms to grow rice, cotton, vegetables and other crops, while the rest were arranged in urban factories.

当时,将近一半的朝鲜人被安置在集体农场和国有农场中,以种植水稻,棉花,蔬菜和其他农作物,其余的则被安排在城市工厂中。

After the North Koreans in Central Asia engaged in agricultural production, they cleared a lot of land, which not only increased the sown area of ​​food crops, but also increased the productivity of new industrial crops such as cotton, and gradually developed collective farms into large-scale agricultural production centers, which contributed to Central Asia’s economy getting bigger. There are about 100 North Korean farmers in Uzbekistan who have won the title of hero of socialist labor.

中亚朝鲜人从事农业生产后,他们清理了许多土地,不仅增加了粮食作物的播种面积,而且还增加了棉花等新型工业作物的生产力,并逐步发展了集体农场进入大型农业生产中心,这为中亚的经济增长做出了贡献。乌兹别克斯坦约有100名朝鲜农民赢得了社会主义劳动英雄称号。

In addition, many Koreans from Central Asia joined the army during World War II. The most famous was Alexander Min. He died heroically during the battle against the Nazis and became the only Korean soldier to be named a hero by the Soviet Union.

此外,第二次世界大战期间,许多来自中亚的韩国人参军。最著名的是亚历山大·敏。他在与纳粹的战斗中英勇牺牲,成为唯一一位被苏联任命为英雄的朝鲜士兵。

Through their own efforts, the North Koreans slowly cleared the suspicion of collaborating with the enemy and gained a foothold in Central Asia. In addition, after the new leadership of the Soviet Union took office, all the peoples who were forced to rehabilitated at that time were rehabilitated, and the ban on "North Koreans must live in the place of settlement for 5 years and cannot move to other places" was lifted, and their citizenship rights were gradually restored.

通过自己的努力,朝鲜人逐渐摆脱了与敌人合作的怀疑,并在中亚立足。此外,苏联新领导人上任后,当时所有被迫恢复原状的人民都得到了恢复原状,禁止“朝鲜人必须在定居点居住5年,不得移居其他地方”。地方”被取消,其公民权逐渐得到恢复。

It was from this time that the Korean ethnic group moved to other central Asian republics. According to statistics from the 1989 census, Kyrgyzstan has 18,000 North Korean immigrants, while Tajikistan has 14,000 North Korean immigrants.

从这个时候起,朝鲜族移居到其他中亚共和国。根据1989年人口普查的统计,吉尔吉斯斯坦有18,000名朝鲜移民,而塔吉克斯坦有14,000名朝鲜移民。

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, five independent and sovereign countries emerged in Central Asia. The main ethnic groups of these countries aroused “ethnic self-centeredness” in the early days of independence and discriminated against the ethnic minority Koreans. After losing their Soviet citizenship, the Koreans living in Central Asia fell into the confusion of their national identity.

1991年苏联解体后,中亚出现了五个独立的主权国家。这些国家的主要民族在独立初期就引起了“民族自我中心”,并歧视了朝鲜族。在失去苏联公民身份后,居住在中亚的朝鲜人陷入了民族身份的混乱。

They can’t tell whether their historical motherland is North Korea, South Korea or Russia. In addition, their Korean language has deteriorated seriously. The people of North Korea and South Korea also hold a cold attitude towards them. Therefore, after the independence of Central Asian countries, the Koreans have not been like other Only a small part of the ethnic groups who were forced to move back to their homeland returned to Russia, and most of the remaining people chose to stay in Central Asia to rejuvenate their own ethnic groups, and established multiple ethnic cultural organizations in Central Asia.

他们无法说出自己的历史祖国是朝鲜,韩国还是俄罗斯。此外,他们的朝鲜语已经严重恶化。朝鲜和韩国人民对他们也持冷淡态度。因此,在中亚国家独立后,朝鲜人并没有像其他人那样被迫返回家园的一小部分人返回俄罗斯,其余大多数人选择留在中亚。振兴自己的民族,并在中亚建立了多个民族文化组织。

The "Koryo people of Central Asia" were officially named during this period. The reason why they are called Korean people is to distinguish between the national names of North Korea and South Korea and to maintain a neutral position in the relationship between North Korea and South Korea. In fact, from an emotional point of view, the Koreans in Central Asia are more inclined to North Korea, because most of their ancestors came from the northern part of the Korean peninsula, and North Korea had diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was the historical “mother country” of the Koreans. The feelings are more complicated.

在此期间,“中亚高丽人”被正式命名。之所以称其为朝鲜人民,是为了区分朝鲜和韩国的民族名称,并在朝鲜和韩国之间的关系中保持中立立场。实际上,从情感上来看,中亚朝鲜人更倾向于朝鲜,因为他们的祖先多数来自朝鲜半岛北部,而朝鲜与苏联建交。苏联是朝鲜人的历史“母国”。感觉更加复杂。

But from an economic point of view, the national cultural organizations of the Koreans in Central Asia have received funding from many Korean companies. The reason why South Korea supports them is to use the relationship of the Koreans in Central Asia to expand the Central Asian market. Russian, Central Asian Koreans are the only overseas North Koreans who can speak Russian. Therefore, South Korea has used funding to close the relationship between the two sides, and in order to help some Central Asian Koreans who want to "return home" to obtain Korean nationality, it has revised The sibling law included the fourth generation of Central Asian Koreans in the scope of certification.

但是从经济角度来看,中亚韩国人的民族文化组织已经从许多韩国公司那里获得了资助。韩国之所以支持他们,是为了利用中亚地区韩国人的关系来扩大中亚市场。俄语中亚朝鲜人是唯一会说俄语的海外朝鲜人。因此,韩国已使用资金来关闭两国之间的关系,并且为了帮助一些想要“返回家园”的中亚朝鲜人获得朝鲜国籍,它修订了《同胞法》,其中包括第四代中亚韩国人在认证范围内。

From 1937 to the present, the Koreans have multiplied and survived in Central Asia for four generations. Excluding the "returning to Korea and Russia population", there are still about 330,000 Koreans living in Central Asia.

从1937年到现在,朝鲜族在中亚繁殖并存活了四代。除“返回朝鲜和俄罗斯的人口”外,仍有约33万韩国人生活在中亚。

In politics, although their status is not as high as that of the main ethnic group and they rarely serve as senior officials, they have at least basic civil rights and can engage in political activities. In terms of economics, they have always been in the middle and upper reaches, because these Koreans are not only engaged in agricultural production, but also involved in a lot of commercial activities. They have established many large enterprises and affected the overall economy of Central Asia, so they have always been right. Central Asian countries are grateful.

在政治上,尽管他们的地位不如主要种族,而且很少担任高级官员,但他们至少具有基本的公民权利,可以从事政治活动。在经济学上,他们一直处于中上游,因为这些韩国人不仅从事农业生产,而且还从事许多商业活动。他们建立了许多大型企业,并影响了中亚的整体经济,因此他们一向正确。中亚国家对此表示感谢。

Moreover, the younger generation of Central Asian Koreans did not understand the forced deportation in 1937. During the Soviet era, it was not allowed to talk about or write about immigration. Therefore, the events of the year did not leave traces in any written form. Through oral transmission from generation to generation, the pain that has been experienced in national history has long been forgotten.

而且,年轻的中亚朝鲜族人在1937年不了解被迫驱逐出境。在苏联时代,不允许谈论或撰写移民问题。因此,一年中的事件没有留下任何书面形式的痕迹。通过世代相传的口述,人们早已忘记了国家历史上经历的痛苦。

Literary and History Lovers丨The Research Direction of North American Modern History

文史爱好者丨北美近代史研究方向

Graduate of London School of Economics and Political Science | Chief Editor of Global Intelligence Officer

伦敦政治经济学院毕业生|全球情报干事总编辑

 
 
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